中美浮梦录︱“大皇帝”与“好朋友”

王元崇

2018-07-11 18:02 来源:澎湃新闻

字号
国书与表文之间:泰勒总统致道光皇帝信
1844年春,美国首位正式赴华代表顾盛(Caleb Cushing,1800–1879)来中国的时候,手里有两封美国总统写给中国皇帝的信。一封措辞正式的,他给了两广总督耆英;另外一封口吻随意的,最终带回了美国,甚至没有告诉中国人他手中有这封信。
泰勒的这两封信,均由国务卿埃布尔•爱普舍(Abel Parker Upshur,1843年7月-1844年2月任第15届国务卿)代为起草。对收到的书信,耆英等视之为“国书”,在译成中文以后,用词、语境同英文出现了很大的差别,差不多成了一篇朝贡国家献给中国皇帝的表文。
这是美国总统第一次直接写信给中国皇帝,后者不仅收到了,而且做了回复,算是一次礼尚往来的“高层”互动,虽然中国对对方的理解出了很大的偏差。下面我们先附上泰勒总统的英文信原文,然后再解析耆英等人翻译的汉文本。
原文:
[TO THE EMPEROR OF CHINA]
I, John Tyler, President of the United States of America — which States are: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, Arkansas, and Michigan — send you this letter of peace and friendship, signed by my own hand.
I hope your health is good. China is a great empire, extending over a great part of the world. The Chinese are numerous. You have millions and millions of subjects. The twenty-six United States are as large as China, though our people are not so numerous. The rising sun looks upon the great mountains and great rivers of China. When he sets, he looks upon rivers and mountains equally large in the United States. Our territories extend from one great ocean to the other; and on the west we are divided from your dominions only by the sea. Leaving the mouth of one of our great rivers, and going constantly towards the setting sun, we sail to Japan and to the Yellow sea.
Now, my words are, that the Governments of two such great countries should be at peace. It is proper, and according to the will of Heaven, that they should respect each other, and act wisely. I therefore send to your Court Caleb Cushing, one of the wise and learned men of this country. On his first arrival in China, he will inquire for your health. He has then strict orders to go to your great city of Peking, and there to deliver this letter. He will have with him secretaries and interpreters.
The Chinese love to trade with our people, and to sell them tea and silk, for which our people pay silver, and sometimes other articles. But the Chinese and the Americans will trade, there should be rules, so that they shall not break your laws nor our laws. Our minister, Caleb Cushing, is authorized to make a treaty to regulate trade. Let it be just. Let there be no unfair advantage on either side. Let the people trade not only at Canton, but also at Amoy, Ning-po, Shang-hai, Fu-chow, and all such other places as may offer profitable exchanges both to China and the United States, provided they do not break your laws nor our laws. We shall not take the part of evil-doers. We shall not uphold them that break your laws. Therefore, we doubt not that you will be pleased that our messenger of peace, with this letter in his hand, shall come to Peking, and there deliver it; and that your great officers will, by your order, make a treaty with him to regulate affairs of trade — so that nothing may happen to disturb the peace between China and America. Let the treaty be signed by your own imperial hand. It shall be signed by mine, by the authority of our great council, the Senate.
And so may your health be good, and may peace reign.
Written at Washington, this twelfth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-three.
Your good friend,
JOHN TYLER.
耆英翻译成中文后,冠以“美利坚汉字国书”之名,进呈道光皇帝,后来收入清廷编纂的《(道光朝)筹办夷务始末》之中。《筹办夷务始末》先由故宫博物院于1930年代出版,后由齐思和等史学家点校整理后于1964年由中华书局出版,流布甚广,时至今日仍是研究晚清外交的和核心历史资料之一,因此很多研究顾盛赴华签约一事的学者也都以《筹办夷务始末》中记载的美国“国书”为准。
然而,耆英提交给朝廷的汉译本是“悉心酌议”的产物。当时耆英方面曾给协助顾盛谈判的伯驾一份汉译本,封题“伯驾老爷玉启”,译文笔书于宣纸之上,是常见的地方督抚上奏奏折所用的纸张,该文书原件现藏美国耶鲁大学医学历史图书馆。将这份译文与耆英最终上奏道光帝的译文对照后,可以发现耆英所做的一些精巧的修改,这些修改使得这份国书看上去很像一份仰慕中华文明与富庶的朝贡国的表文。
耆英方面送给伯驾的美国“国书”汉译本,封底红字为“宜身至前,迫事毋间,愿君自发,印信封完”(特别感谢山东大学历史文化学院杨加深教授帮助解读这些小篆字)
以下以耆英递交给道光的译本为主线,以耶鲁藏本为辅助,解读中国对这份“国书”的理解。黑体大字为耆英上奏的汉译本原文,“【】”内的小字部分为作者注解。
亚美理驾合众国【英文国名the United States of America的音译,今日多写作“美利坚合众国”,简称“美国”】伯理玺天德【英文president(总统)的音译】玉罕泰禄【总统John Tyler的音译,今多翻译为“约翰•泰勒”;“玉罕”今译“约翰”,均系基于希伯来语发音的翻译】恭函【“恭”字为英文原件所无,系添加词,用来形容其以下达上的恭敬,以符合清朝体制】,专致【“致”字在耆英给道光的奏折内改做“达”】于大清大皇帝陛下【这一句也是英文原件所没有的,“大清大皇帝陛下”也是为了符合清朝体制的添饰。另外,汉译本遵照了当时的抬格体式,“大清”抬两格,“大皇帝”抬三格,下文的“皇帝”、“德承乾健”、“皇舆”、“觐”、“皇都”、“龙光”、“安康”等等,均抬两格;“天心”抬三格。这种抬格背后是非常严格的上下尊卑的政治秩序】:
【“孤”系中国古代君王的自称,但清朝皇帝已经不用这个字,而用“朕”,此处当时的翻译者刻意选择用“孤”来译英文的“I”(我),具有强烈的显示“君”对“帝”的差异的倾向】统摄二十六联邦【此处的“联邦”指美国的州,即state,而不是指今日“联邦”一词所对应的the federal government或者the Union;截止该总统写这封信的1843年,美国拥有26个州】:曰缅【Maine,今译“缅因”】、曰纽韩诗阿【New Hampshire,今译“新罕布什尔”】、曰法尔满【Vermont,今译“佛蒙特”】、曰马萨诸色士【Massachusetts,今译“马萨诸塞州”,中国人多以“麻省”称之】、曰尔罗受伦【Rhode Island,今译“罗德岛”】、曰干业底结【Connecticut,今译“康涅狄格”】、曰纽约克【New York,今译“纽约”】、曰纽热尔些【New Jersey,今译“新泽西”】、曰边西尔威呢阿【Pennsylvania,今译“宾夕法尼亚”】、曰特尔拉华【Delaware,今译“特拉华”】、曰马理兰【Maryland,今译“马里兰”】、曰费尔治尼阿【Virginia,今译“弗吉尼亚”】、曰北格罗来纳【North Carolina,今译“北卡莱罗纳”】、曰南格罗来纳【South Carolina,今译“南卡莱罗纳”】、曰热尔治阿【Georgia,今译“乔治亚”】、曰阿喇巴麻【Alabama,今译“阿拉巴马”】、曰米细细比【Mississippi,今译“密西西比”】、曰累西安纳【Louisiana,今译“路易斯安那”】、曰阿干萨士【Arkansas,今译“阿肯色”】、曰典业西【Tennessee,今译“田纳西”】、曰米苏理【Missouri,今译“密苏里”】、曰建德基【Kentucky,今译“肯塔基”】、曰呵海呵【Ohio,今译“俄亥俄”】、曰引底安纳【Indiana,今译“印第安纳”】、曰伊理奈士【Illinois,今译“伊利诺斯”】、及米诗干【Michigan,今译“密歇根”】等国【此处的“国”即美国的州,即state,并非国家之意】。兹此书亲笔画押,谨致太平,兼通和好。恭维【以示恭敬】大皇帝陛下【此系添加词汇,以符合清朝体制】,德承乾健,永绥视履之祥;治奠坤维,绵亘幅员之广;育物无遗,户口时形殷庶;广生有象,版图日益蕃滋,固不翅千万亿兆也【这几句是基于原件中以下四句话的翻译:“I hope your health is good. China is a great empire, extending over a great part of the world. The Chinese are numerous. You have millions and millions of subjects.”但这一翻译大大改变了愿意,将原文塑造成了一个外夷藩邦对富庶的中国的倾心仰慕和竭诚赞美】。
我二十六联邦,中峙大洋【此指美国处于太平洋和大西洋之间】,西濒中域【耆英本中写为“中城”,伯驾所收译本中系“中域”,耆英本当系笔误,“中域”指中国】,万派汪洋,俨画鸿沟而作界【“中峙大洋,西濒中域,万派汪洋,俨画鸿沟而作界”一语,系以下英文原文的翻译:“Our territories extend from one great ocean to the other; and on the west we are divided from your dominions only by the sea.”】;一轮拥现,惟测乌曜【乌曜指太阳,中国古代传说太阳内有三足乌】以审方【即判断方向;这两句是衍文】。日晃东昇,即散皇舆之彩;阳光西下,甫生敝域之辉【这两句是对以下两句原文的翻译:“The rising sun looks upon the great mountains and great rivers of China. When he sets, he looks upon rivers and mountains equally large in the United States.”但其中的“great mountains and great rivers of China”即中国壮丽山河,被译成了“皇舆”,即中国皇朝之舆地,衍生了强烈的认同中国为天下中心的政治含义;对之对应的后半句有关美国的壮丽河山则被刻意译为“敝域”;这两句里面其实也包含着天体运行和中美位于东西半球的意思,但中文翻译中把这层意思塑造成为中国处于日出朝气蓬勃之时,霞光四射,而美国则于日落西山之时方有光明可言,一朝一暮,尊卑立现】。均同覆载【“覆载”指天地,《礼记•中庸》曰:“天之所覆,地之所载,日月所照,霜露所队,凡有血气者,莫不尊亲。”】之中,自分扞格之势,惟广狭或可相侪,而众寡则难比数【这句系以下英文原文的翻译:“The twenty-six United States are as large as China, though our people are not so numerous.”】。至我国来程【“来”字用意颇深,与“万邦来朝”、“来化”等“来”同出一辙,可谓匠心独具】,当离河口,辨道于日入之方,满曳帆樯,直抵乎日本之国 ,再循赤【原文中并无“赤道”之言】,乃达黄河【“黄河”系Yellow sea的翻译,即黄海,此处当系误译】。
今两国均承景运,须共昇平,仁民爱物,道本大公,推己及人,理归一致,允宜上体天心,下尽人事【这一句系以下英文原文的翻译:“Now, my words are, that the Governments of two such great countries should be at peace. It is proper, and according to the will of Heaven, that they should respect each other, and act wisely.”其中,“景运”和“昇平”均系对“peace”(和平)的解读。“仁民爱物”,语出《孟子•尽心上》:“君子之于物也,爱人而弗仁;于民也,仁之而弗亲,亲亲而仁民,仁民而爱物。”“道本大公”,也是士人们解读孔孟之道时候所本的一个义理;“推己及人,理归一致”是一种延伸翻译。“天心”是对“the will of Heaven”的翻译,此词和“天命”几乎一致,但写为“天命”是犯上的大事,所以翻译者写为“天心”,而“上体天心,下尽人事”是绝好翻译】。是以孤于本国中,选准才识可任之人加勒顾盛 【耆英本的原文“加勒顾盛”四字均增加了口字旁,这也是中国朝廷当时的文书传统,以示这些外邦人系未开化之属,类若犬羊;但是,在耆英方面送给伯驾的中文译本内却没有口字旁,可见清朝官员对上对下的灵活手腕】,特命偕副佐司员及诸传译,就觐皇都【“就觐皇都”一语,是英文“go to your great city of Pekin”(前往你们伟大的北京城)的翻译,“觐”字体现了上下等级,“皇都”也体现了对中国天下正中的认可】。懔龙光于咫尺,首祝安康,献鲤信之殷勤,次陈款渎【这一句翻译增加了很多的衍文。“龙光”指亲自觐见道光皇帝;“首祝安康”是对“in inquire for your health”(问询健康)的翻译;“献鲤信”指“deliver this letter”(递信),而“鲤信”语出古乐府《饮马长城窟行》:“客从远方来,遗我双鲤鱼。呼童烹鲤鱼,中有尺素书。”;“次陈款渎”是一种下对上陈情之意,等级立判】。
诚以为中华【“中华”属于衍译,用来体现美国对中国文明的认同】之辐辏,如甘徕我国之梯航【“梯航”一语常见于清朝描述各朝贡外藩梯航来华的盛况,烘托外邦来朝之势,这个词语将美国也囊括到了类似的国家之中】,所最要者,浮梁【驾船】万里,端因选茗【即选茶、买茶】而来,抱布千缗【“布”指刀布、泉布,中国古代对钱的称呼;“缗”指串起来的钱;“布缗”合用亦指钱;此处的“抱布千缗”指美国商人携带大量的银元到中国,即英文原文的“our people pay silver”(我们的人付银两)。《诗经•卫风•氓》开篇即是“氓之蚩蚩,抱布贸丝”,有的人从字面上将之解释成是抱着布来换丝,其实正解当系拿着钱来买丝】,特为质丝而至,无非以有易无,计偿酬直。惟是欲立市廛之政【指贸易法则】,须详贸易之经,两国商人,方不致各乖宪典【“宪典”是对“law”(法律)的翻译】。孤于遣大臣加勒顾盛【耆英本中“加勒顾盛”四字仍增口字旁】时,已畀以便宜之权【此处的“便宜”指清朝方面的“便宜行事”,通常是特简钦差大臣之意,实际上这是对顾盛正式名称“envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary”(特使暨全权公使)的翻译】,令按公平之义,同参条约,调处经商,冀能两国有益皆均,无利不遍。至于殚货殖之精,尽人逐末,溥乾元之美,迁地为良。若得准我国商民,不独在于广东,兼在厦门、宁波、上海、福州等处贸易,我国商民,断不藐视【伯驾所受译本内写为“藐坏”】典章,孤亦断不肯偏袒庇纵【伯驾译本内此句后尚有“任其藐坏也”】。孤临轩遣使,赴阙陈书【“赴阙陈书”是对“with this letter in his hand, shall come to Peking, and there deliver it”的翻译,但体现了强烈的上下尊卑等级秩序】,谨致太平之意,兼通和好之诚,遥度宸衷【“宸衷”指帝王、帝王之心意】,必不致因此稍有不怿矣【伯驾本内“遥度宸衷,必不致因此稍有不怿矣”一句写作“决无致疑于宸衷之因此稍有不怿矣”】。惟祈万几偶暇,特简下颁,派一大臣,会商条约,条分缕析,调剂商贾之宜,法立弊除,共享平安之福【伯驾本内在“法立弊除”之后是一长句:“并得止息太平之害,他时条约定议缮成,即请濡蘸丹豪,判施朱押,孤亦当按本国公会及各议政所奉之权画押,以凭互换”,这一长句系对英文原文“Let the treaty be signed by your own imperial hand. It shall be signed by mine, by the authority of our great council, the Senate.”的翻译,但耆英上奏该“国书”之时双方已经签约,故而他改成了“共享平安之福”一句】。
伏愿【“伏愿”在此多少表示了一种俯伏、叩拜之态】九重宵旰【亦指帝王】,长歌日月,升恒万载,太平永固,山河带砺【这几句是对“And so may your health be good, and may peace reign”的翻译;“山河带砺”,或者“带河砺山”,指泰山变成磨刀石、黄河变成衣带那样窄,形容永远万世,这个词经常出现在清朝昭告外藩的敕谕之内】。
该汉译文最后刻意没有译出泰勒使用的西元纪年,即基督降生后 一千八百四十三年,也没有译出泰勒对中国皇帝自称“您的好朋友”(即原文“your good friend”)一事。
对此“国书”,道光皇帝只朱批了一个字:“览”。别无他话,和批阅一份普通奏折以及朝鲜、越南等国家奉上的表文毫无二致。
泰勒总统的第二封信写了什么呢?这封信很短,口吻也很随便:
原文
[TO THE EMPEROR OF CHINA]
Great and Good Friend: I have made choice of Caleb Cushing, one of our distinguished citizens, to reside near your Majesty in the quality of envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the United States of America. He is well informed of the relative interests of the two countries, and our sincere desire to cultivate friendship and good correspondence between us; and, from a knowledge of his fidelity and good conduct, 1 have entire confidence that he will render himself acceptable to your Majesty, by his constant endeavors to preserve and advance the interests and happiness of both nations. I therefore request your Majesty to receive him favorably, and to give fall credence to whatever he shall say on the part of the United States, and most of all when he shall assure you of their friendship and wishes for your prosperity. And I pray God to have you in His safe and holy keeping.
Written at the city of Washington, the twelfth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-three.
Your good friend,
JOHN TYLER
翻译成今天的白话,意思就是:
[致中国皇帝]
伟大的好朋友:我已经任命我国最杰出的公民之一顾盛,担任美国特使暨全权公使,前往驻扎贵国。他已经明晰了两国的相关利益,以及我们促进双边友谊和友好往来的真诚期望。鉴于他的忠诚和良好的举动,我完全相信他将通过维持和促进双边利益和福祉的不懈努力来为陛下所接受。在此,我要求陛下热忱款待他,相信他所做的有关美国的言论,特别是他做的推进双边友谊以及对陛下福禄之祝愿。我祈祷上帝保佑您平安无恙。
我主降生后一千八百四十三年七月十二日,笔于华盛顿。
您的好朋友,
约翰•泰勒
道光皇帝要是读到了这样一封称呼他为“好朋友”的信,不知道会作何感想。当然,这样的一封信,即便是递交给了广州方面,耆英等人也绝对不会原样翻译呈递上去,开头的“伟大的好朋友”恐怕也要变成“中国大皇帝陛下”,最后也要变成一封准表文。
天子诏书:想象中的美国外藩朝贡身份
来而无往非礼也,耆英请求道光皇帝颁发一个答复给美国方面,但这个回复不是国书,而是天子颁发外藩的“诏书”。
对此提议,道光帝十分欣赏,也认同耆英说的“该国远隔重洋,仰戴天朝恩德,遣使呈递国书,情词恭顺”,所以中国应当“俯赐玺书”,这样美国就可以“奉为世守”,即世世代代作为中国册封的世家陪臣,乃出于中国对外藩朝贡国家的身份认定。但念及美国“地居化外,言语不通”,所以诏书如何写,耆英要好好斟酌。
从道光和耆英这一交流中可以看到,君臣二人完全是在朝贡贸易体系内看待美国的,所以“呈递国书”一事就显得比通商条约谈判还要重要
耆英领命后,再次对美国进行了想象中的描述:“米利坚地处西隅,在各国中最为荒远,今蒙恩准特降诏书,俾得奉为世守,既已嘉其慕义之忱,复以坚其向化之志,殊方异类,莫不感戴皇仁。”然后,耆英认为美国人地处化外偏僻之所,无从理解天朝诏书中深奥的文字,所以此次可以写的简单明白,主要是维护“天朝体制”。另外,他建议使用清文即满文写诏书,这样做“更为慎密”。
耆英拟定了一个汉文本和清文本,奏请道光皇帝的意见。其汉文本曰
大皇帝问伯理玺天德好。朕仰承景命,抚驭中华,薄海内外,视同一家。春初,贵国使臣加勒顾盛奉书远来,抵我粤省,历涉重洋,辛劬备至。朕不忍令复劳跋涉,免其进京朝见,特命钦差大臣宗室耆英,前往慰劳,并商订一切事宜。嗣经该大臣将来书呈览,悃忱笃挚,词意恳懃,批阅之次,嘉悦殊深。所订一切贸易章程,朕覆加酌核,亦俱详尽周妥,永堪遵守。其广州、厦门、福州、宁波、上海等处,均准合众国民人前往,按照条款任便贸易,结万年之和好,利两国之人民,想伯理玺天德亦必深为欢忭也。
道光二十四年十一月初七日
[敕命之宝]
耆英捉刀的道光皇帝致美国总统泰勒“诏书”汉文本,落款日期1844年12月16日
这道“诏书”上所用的印“敕命之宝”,是皇帝用来盖在诏书上的特用印玺。
“敕命之宝” ,满印文为hesei tacibure boobai
与此同时,耆英按照他的计划用满文行书写了一份满文本的:
耆英手书道光皇帝致美国总统泰勒“诏书”满文本(阅读顺序自左至右、从上而下)
这个满文本和汉文本意思是一致的,例如首句“daicing gurun-i hūwangdi fonjime, be lii hi tiyan de saiyūn”即是“大清国皇帝问伯理玺天德好”的意思,对应的汉文本原文首句即“大皇帝问伯理玺天德好”。有的地方因为语言自身的关系,相对于汉语而言意思表示的比较直白,例如第二句“bi amba doro be sirame alifi”,意思是“我承受大命”,在汉文本里就是“朕仰承景命”;下一句“tumen irgen be bilume dasara de”,意思是“抚育统治万民”,即汉文本里的“抚驭中华”;下一句的“gubci mederi tulergi be emu booi gese gūnime”,意思是“海外全部视如一家”,即“薄海内外,视同一家”之译。以下亦皆如此对应。
需要补充说明的一点是,满文在很多语境内缺乏汉文所能携带的强烈政治含义,例如举出的这几个例子内,“朕”这个在汉语中只有皇帝才能使用的字,在满文中是“bi”(“我”),是一个常见第一人称称谓,并不具备排他性使用特征。至于“仰承景命”等等,满文均无法将其背后政治含义同等表达出来。
按照道理,这种文书应该使用清文楷书才对,但据耆英自己向道光帝交代,他自己一直写行书,鲜写清文楷书,所以道光帝就同意他这样书写,这君臣二人甚是合得来。
这封“诏书”由耆英于1844年底转给伯驾,伯驾随后将其翻译成了英文,于1845年1月23日自广州转给当时已经回到华盛顿顾盛。顾盛将原本两份和伯驾译文于1845年6月21日通过国务院转给了总统,但泰勒总统已经于当年3月4日下台了,换上了詹姆斯•波尔克当总统(James Knox Polk,1845年3月4日–1849年3月4日在任)。所以,美国总统是看到了这份来自中国皇帝的书信的。但是美国人看到的是伯驾的译文:
His Imperial Majesty hopes the President is well. WE have graciously commanded that the Imperial middle flowery (kingdom) and (the countries of) the inner and outer seas are to be regarded as one family. Early in the Spring the Commissioner of your honorable country, Caleb Cushing, presented his credentials. He came from a great distance to Our Province of Kwangtung, passing through many seas and suffering many hardships before arriving at his destination. We could not bear to order him to submit to the hardships of further travel (and thus) he was prevented from coming to Peking and being received in audience. WE specially appointed as Imperial Commissioner Ch’i Ying (Kiying), an Imperial Clansman, to receive him and to negotiate all business. Subsequently the Imperial Commissioner submitted to US your letter, respectfully petitioning that the contents be noted. It was read with much pleasure and gratification. The regulations of trade which have been agreed to have received OUR careful consideration. They are carefully and minutely drawn up and are satisfactory. They are to be eternally respected. Citizens of the United States are permitted to proceed to Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai and are free to engage in trade at these places in accordance with the articles (of the regulations). This will promote friendly relations for all time and be of mutual benefit to the peoples of our two countries. It is expected that the President will also be much gratified.
Tao Kuang 24th year, 11th month, 7th day (Dec. 16, 1844).
经过伯驾的翻译,文本和语境变得迥然不同了,道光帝的“诏书”变成呈给总统的国书,没有任何等级上的差异,更没有“敕命之宝”之类的因素,也完全没有了朝贡贸易的影子。读完这封信,任何一位美国总统都会觉得中国皇帝很亲切,的确是个“好朋友”,无乃皇帝在北京却看他们为化外夷人。
在这个中外仍旧十分隔膜的时代,例如耆英和伯驾这样的居间的翻译者,往往剔除了对方文本内本身所带有的信息,并对文字进行了重新塑造,以期适应本国的政治文化语境。清朝和暹罗(泰国)之间的交流,也是这样的,暹罗国王写给乾隆的金叶书信,在广东翻译后被称为“金叶表文”,暹罗国王质问清朝皇帝的一些事情和口吻,也都被通事巧妙地塑造成了外藩朝贡之臣仰赖大皇帝定夺之类的语言。这种通事群体在历史上的作用,无论从哪个方面看,都不可小觑
就这样,在1844年后半年,美国人和中国人都很高兴,前者高兴与中国签订了条约、扩大了贸易范围,后者高兴抚夷成功、美国就其范围。实质上,双方心里都产生了一个想象的对方。《望厦条约》规定的十二年修约期到来后,这种想象与现实之间的冲突,逐步暴露出来,对双边关系产生了进一步的影响,这一点我们下章分析。
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关键词 >> 中美关系,书信,表文,诏书,通事群体

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